Indonesia’s HIV epidemic is understood to be among the fastest growing in the region. The epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men, male and female sex workers, and people who inject drugs (PWID). Among these four risk groups, MSM are found to have the lowest HIV prevalence (8.5 percent) and PWID the highest (52.2 percent). There is concern of rising HIV risk among MSM given that the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continues to grow amidst continuously low consistent condom use and a high proportion who have multiple male and female sex partners. Of the three key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, MSM is the only one in which the rate of new HIV infections has grown since 2007.
Beginning with the National HIV and AIDS Action Planfor 2007 to 2009, the Ministry of Health has indicated heightened awareness of HIV risk among key affected populations and has vowed to refocus HIV prevention efforts in these groups. This renewed attention is matched with the National AIDS Commission’s strong leadership role in the national HIV response to meet coverage targets. Despite increased availability of health services targeted to KAPs, many MSM and other KAPs fail to engage with health care providers, perpetuating a crucial service gap.